The Hillman Stereoview Archive www.hillmanweb.com/3d Views of Old China: Colour Series 3-D Stereoview Cards :: Text
1-150 RUSSIA JAPAN WAR in CHINA: 1904-05 The Siege of Port Arthur :: Cards 1-100
101. Japanese Wounded Entering Hospital
The sea attack on Port Arthur began on February 9, 1904, at noon. The
land isolation occurred on May 26th. when the Second Army, under General
Oku, took Nanshan Hill. The four grand series of Russian defences from
Nanshan down the peninsula were taken in quick succession, and on the 12th
day of August, after the two outposts of Port Arthur, immediately in front
of the main line of fortifications, were taken, the real siege began, which
was to last four months and nineteen days. On May 29th Dalny was occupied
by the Japanese, and was at once made the base of all their operations
against Port Arthur and of the hospital service. Many of the Russian government
buildings and store houses were used for hospital purposes, to make room
for the thousands upon thousands of wounded who kept pouring in. The hospitals
were so full at times that new arrivals had to be deposited in the street,
where they staid until a place could be provided for them.
102. Eleven-Inch Shells for the "Osaka
Each of these shells weigh 500 pounds. Its cost is $175, and
the cost of each discharge, including that of the impelling power, is about
$400. During the heavy bombardment preceding each successive assault each
gun was fired once every eight minutes, and as the grand bombardment lasted
in every case about four hours, the cost of these eighteen mortars alone
must have been $200,000, and for the whole of the batteries, including
the smaller naval guns, machine guns, etc., the cost of each bombardment
was approximately half a million dollars. The eleven-inch mortar has a
maximum range, with moderate degree of elevation, of seven or eight miles;
but as none of these batteries was more than three miles distant from the
objects aimed at, they had to be fired at an angle of as great as 60 degrees,
the huge shells hurtling high into the heavens, passing over two, three
ranges of hills, and falling like thunderbolts out of the blue sky, vertically
upon the doomed city, or fort or warship.
103. Bomb-Proof Dugout at General Nogi's
Officers and men at General Nogi's headquarters slept during eight
months in bombproof dugouts, such as is shown in the picture. In the background
looms a range of hills, beyond which, on a higher range, the fortification
of Port Arthur rose. Such a dugout is large enough for a man to lie down
in and turn over. The officers had each a heavy blanket, a rubber pillow
to be inflated, a pan, a trunk that carried six pounds of clothes, and
a small lantern of oiled silk. That was the complete outfit of the dugout.
On a nail hung the sword, and the boots lay outside. The rigid Manchuria
winter set in in October, and to keep warm in these holes in the ground,
without any fire, was no easy matter. But the officers as well as the men
never grumbled but bore cheerfully every adversity, every hardship, satisfied
with a handful of rice to eat, a mouthful of cold tea and a few cigarettes.
104. Japanese Reserves Waiting for Orders
When the Japanese found that they could not get into Port Arthur by
a rush above ground they decided to burrow in below ground. The main attack
was directed against the line of forts to the east of the city, or the
Russian right center. The first operation was to cut a drop trench, not
less than six feet in depth and a dozen or more feet in width, roughly
parallel with the line of forts, and at a distance of about 1,000 yards
therefrom. From this trench three lines of zigzag trenches were dug in
the direction of the principal forts of Ehrlung, Keekwan and Panlung. The
zigzag consisted of an alternate approach and parallel. The angle of the
diagonal approaches was always carefully mapped out by the engineers, and
was so laid with reference to the enemy's forts that it could neither be
seen or reached by shell fire. The digging was done chiefly at night, and
the soil was carried back through the trenches on stretchers and dumped
out of sight of the enemy.
105. Warming Up Their Camp Lunches.
This picture shows one of the Red Cross surgeons and two private soldiers,
who have clubbed together for their noonday lunch and are just ready to
start a small fire, by which to heat water for tea and rice. The photographer,
ever on a still hunt for interesting groups, was graciously given the,
privilege of taking the group, and everyone of the three men came afterward
to buy one or two copies to send home to Japan to their dear ones as a
souvenir of the war. This part of the camp was at the fort of Two Hundred
and Three Meter Hill, just after the Japanese had succeeded in driving
off the Russians, although they found it impossible to bring any guns to
the top, which was completely dominated by the neighboring Russian forts
on Chair Mountain and Table Mountain. In the background by the tent stands
an officer of the regiment located here, who seems highly interested in
the photographer's work.
106. The Well-Provided-For Japanese Wounded.
An endless row of wounded entered Dalny during and after the ninety-six
hours of incessant fighting in August, when the Japanese undertook to take
Port Arthur by a front assault, as they had taken all the minor fortifications
on the peninsula, the quadruple line of outworks between Nanshan and the
principal fortress. Officially it was admitted that 25,000 men had been
sacrificed in this wholly futile attempt. Not since Grant hurled his inefficient
brigades against Cold Harbor has there been such a slaughter against a
fortress. In the Ninth Division two regiments were nearly wiped out, and
a battalion and a company of artillery were put out of action to a man.
For a week the roads dribbled stretchers loaded with masses of flesh, clothes
and blood. The bandaging places overflowed and the living were so busy
helping their wounded comrades to live there was no time to bury the dead.
107. Japanese Soldier On His Way for Water.
The Japanese private soldier with the two kegs is on his way to a well
for water. It is such a cold morning he has covered his throat and ears,
but in spite of the severity of the weather he has thrown aside the American
shoes, furnished to the army by the Japanese government, and is wearing
the native straw sandals and cloth stockings. When the Japanese were asked
how they took Two Hundred and Three Meter Hill they replied eagerly: "By
taking off our boots." When the soldiers had reached the last resting place
below the mouths of the guns on the hill, when they found that it would
be impossible to climb the precipice in boots, they, without waiting for
orders, pulled the boots off and, improvising sandals from the rough rice
sacking, thus prepared their feet for the task before them. A whole day
they lay still, the Russians 150 yards above them. When night came they
crawled up like ants on a wall and, quietly leaping over the parapet, put
the Russians to flight in a final deathly struggle.
108. A Treat for the Boys In the Japanese
This is a scene in one of the many camps around Port Arthur. It is
one of the streets between the tents. The background is formed by a hill,
which protects, the camp against the fire from the Russian forts. The place
was laid out by the army engineers, slightly slanting, so as to afford
a good drainage. Ditches were dug which quickly carried off the surface
water, so that even a rainstorm did little harm to the camp. The two soldiers
shown in the picture have just brought a tin case with biscuits or hard
tack to vary the diet of their comrades, who welcome such a change from
the everlasting rice and dried fish with great pleasure and gratitude toward
the Emperor, who thus shows his loving care for his soldiers in the field.
The photographer just happened along as the two men had deposited their
load and easily persuaded them to pose for their picture.
109. Band Practice, Japanese Army.
The Japanese army was organized after the pattern of the Germany army,
and it is wonderful how quick the Japanese were to learn not only the outward
form but the living spirit of the great organization of their masters.
Only in one single respect they have been unable to imitate or to improve
upon their model, and that is in the line of the regimental music brought
to such a high standard in music-loving Germany, where every regiment has
its full military band, under a well-trained, talented leader. This the
Japanese did not even attempt to imitate, and wisely so. At Port Arthur
they had one such band, which played for the generals at luncheon and for
the convalescents in the field hospitals, but very quiet music, avoiding
the military, the dramatic and the inspiriting. Of these the Japanese had
no need. With them war was business; cool, rational business, in which
enthusiasm has no place.
110. Recreation in a Japanese Army Camp.
The Japanese have a wonderful way of acquiring Western ways. They investigate
everything, and whatever they think will improve their way of living or
working they readily accept. They even had a commission examine the advantages
of Christianity over their own religions, but the commission reported that
the Japanese were much gentler and more honest and moral people than any
Christian nation as a whole, and that the Christian zealots and hypocrites
had no counterpart in Japan. Our picture shows Japanese private soldiers
dancing a quadrille under the instruction of an American war correspondent.
The Osaka band is playing and these soldiers are practicing with an earnestness
as if all Japan had their eyes on them. Their pastimes were all innocent
sports with nothing rough about them, games like fox and geese, and occasionally
the low singing of an endless victory-hymn by General Fukishima, who fought
under Marshal Oyama.
111. Japanese Water Guard, Protecting Camp
The peninsula on which Port Arthur is situated is long and narrow,
in consequence of which there is little running water, and the natural
scarcity of the water was enhanced by the destruction of every vestige
of shrubbery or forest by the Russians, lest they might serve the Japanese
as hiding places or for fuel. The Japanese posted sentries at all the wells,
brooks or other sources of water supply, who permitted no one to approach
or use the water without orders from the General in charge. In this picture
the sentry is guarding a small stream, and the soldiers are permitted to
use the water for washing and other purposes below the sentry, while above
him no water might be taken, except for drinking purposes. Another difficulty
with which the army had to contend was the scarcity of fuel. Every bit
of cornstalk or straw was gleaned from the fields to serve as kindling,
and the whole peninsula and the mainland nearby was searched for old wooden
buildings that might be torn down and used to make the tea-kettle boil.
112. A Japanese Cavalry Hostler.
To the foreign war correspondents it was an ever new delight to witness
the inborn politeness of the common Japanese soldier. The courtesy of the
officers was so continuous and exacting it became embarrassing, but even
the camp-servants and hostlers vied with each other in extending the utmost
kindness to the foreigners who had come to witness their victories over
mighty Russia. The soldiers had 3 cents a day to spend, and the Manchurian
peddlers did a thriving business among them, selling them beer in bottles,
cigarettes and such other small articles as they might want. When a war
correspondent came to inspect the horses the hostler, whose picture this
is, was always ready to greet them with a friendly smile and, producing
his cigarette box, insisted on their smoking with him. He was a student
and of good parentage, as there were hundreds of them doing the work of
common laborers behind the lines of soldiers.
113. Transports Bringing Rice for Japanese
Rice formed the most important part of the rations issued to the Japanese
soldiers. During the campaign in Manchuria the army, consisting of over
400,000 men, used over 600,000 pounds of rice a day. The labor and expense
of transporting this enormous quantity of rice, together with the immense
quantities of other supplies used, was handled by the Japanese commissary
in a most systematic and expeditious manner. The same consummate foresight
and skill, which the Japanese evinced in the preparation of their army
and navy for this life-and-death-struggle with Russia, was also evident
in the manner in which the army was provided for during the whole war.
The Japanese government set their soldiers to tasks deemed impossible by
military critics as well as by the world at large, but they also accomplished
wonders in keeping their men at the top notch of fighting trim.
114. The Government Office at Dalny.
Under the Russians Dalny was not only a port but also the seat of the
civil government, destined to wield a tremendous power if Russia was permitted
to extend its empire gradually over the whole of Manchuria, as they expected
and secretly plotted to do. China was powerless to resist Russia, and the
opposition of the European great powers to the Russian plans was being
avoided by a peaceful annexation, virtual rather than nominal or formal.
Russian merchants followed in the wake of the Russian soldiers who were
stationed all along the Manchurian railway from Harbin to Port Arthur,
and these merchants settled down in favorable spots, selected by the government,
and forming the nucleus for future larger settlements. It was this "peaceful"
secret annexation, well known to the Japanese, that hastened them to declare
war as soon as they believed themselves to be ready lest the Russians might
entrench themselves too firmly in Manchuria.
115. The Front Parallel Before Port Arthur.
When the foot of the slope of a Russian fort was reached by the zigzag
trenches, the last great parallel, extending along the whole face of the
front, was cut for the purpose of assembling here the troops for the final
dash upon the fort. From this parallel the Japanese cut tunnels straight
through the bowels of the hill until they found themselves immediately
below the massive stone walls of the fort. Here cross tunnels were cut,
parallel with the walls and immediately below them, in which tons of dynamite
were placed and the wires laid ready for explosion. Of course, in many
cases the trenches were located by the Russians, and desperate night sorties
were made in the endeavor to break up the work. But it went remorselessly
forward, and at a favorable moment the dynamite was exploded, and the infantry
rushed out of the trenches and through the gap into the fort. This picture
was taken just before the grand assault on Fort Keekwan on September 21.
116. Japanese Cavalry Officers.
The Japanese Cavalry did not play a very prominent part in the siege
of Port Arthur, but it was a most thoroughly disciplined and highly organized
troop, held ever ready to pounce upon the Russians if they should venture
out upon a sortie, which, if undertaken with great force in the direction
of Dalny along the coast, might have met with a temporary success and inflicted
very serious damage upon the Japanese. The children of Nippon are of small
stature and their horses were small too, but well trained and very hardy.
In the Manchuria, in the battles and skirmishes before Liaoyang and Mukden,
they often tried conclusions with the Cossacks and won great praise. In
the background of the picture are seen two bomb-proof stables for the horses,
and beyond them some stands for the short periods, when the guns of Port
Arthur were silent.
117. A Chinese Village Barber Shop.
Whether Russia and Japan were engaged in the most terrible war of modern
times, whether the deathly combat was being waged right near their own
villages, and whether their own political destiny was in the balance, seemed
to be very immaterial to the inhabitants of the Manchurian villages near
Port Arthur. They went about the pursuit of their daily labor quite indifferent
to the tremendous conflict, unconcerned about its outcome, and regardless
of flying shot and shell. Their own little business affairs and the observation
of their own personal customs were to them of vastly greater importance
than the question of Russian or Japanese supremacy in Manchuria. This picture
represents a Chinese barber shaving the head of a customer in front of
his dwelling, in the shade of a screen made of cornstalks. His assistant
is bringing warm water with which to remove the soap from the shaven head.
118. Japanese Boiling Water for the Army
The Japanese paid greater attention to matters of hygiene, sanitation
and medical care than has ever been shown in any of the great armies of
the world. They believed that an ounce of prevention is worth more than
a pound of cure, and, convinced that a very large percentage of the sickness
and death in war is due to the drinking of impure water and the eating
of improper food, they inaugurated a most perfect system of providing for
their soldiers a sufficient quantity of good water and wholesome food,
and saw to it that the soldiers everywhere in the vast field of operations
had easy access to both. It is not too much to maintain that a great share
of the unprecedented military and naval successes of the Japanese is due
to this foresight, which made every soldier feel that every minute his
whole country was standing behind him, tending to his wants in the most
liberal and rational manner.
119. Sutler Opening His Stores in Japanese
The Chinese inhabitants of Manchuria, merchants and traders by nature,
found a profitable business in supplying merchandise and supplies of all
kinds to the Japanese soldiers, who spent their money freely, feeling that
they might never return from the war, and that the money received for their
services would be of no value unless they spent it. The other three persons
in the picture are a Manchurian peasant and his two children, driven out
of their peaceful home, that lay in ruins, soon after the deadly struggle
for the possession of Port Arthur began around it. The poor fellow is waiting
for a chance to help the Manchurian merchant open his packages and erect
a tent, thus earning a little money for the support of his family. In the
background is the viaduct of the railroad leading to Port Arthur. It was
a part of the Transsiberian Road, on which every Russian soldier and every
bit of ordnance, ammunition and provision was brought east 6,000 miles.
120. Boiling Drinking Water for Japanese
There never was a war so well prepared as the one between Japan and
Russia, at least on the part of the Japanese. Ever since the day when Russia
interfered in the peace negotiations between Japan and China in 1898, forbidding
Japan to take an inch of Chinese territory on the Asiatic mainland, the
latter had no other idea than to take vengeance and to defeat Russia. They
went to work with incredible energy and sagacity, working night and day
to accomplish their purpose. They engaged German officers of high rank
to drill their army and to instruct them in modern warfare; they armed
their men with the most improved modern guns, and provided them with everything
that could possibly be of service, down to rubber-covered nippers with
which to cut the electric wire entanglements in front of the Russian forts.
Each army also had a large number of immense kettles in which to boil the
water for the soldiers to drink.
121. Manchurian Merchants on Market Day
On May 26th the Japanese Second Army, which had been landed at Petsewo
Bay, attacked the first line of Russian defense at Nanshan, eighteen miles
north of Port Arthur, and gave an inkling of their mettle by taking the
position on a frontal attack. The four other successive lines of defense,
running parallel to each other across the peninsula of Liaoyang, were also
captured in quick succession, as the Japanese were eager to take Dalny,
which they needed as a safe port for landing their reserves, their siege
guns and the ammunition and other supplies for the army. The fiercest fight
in these three bloody days took place at the double height, Kenshan and
Wuteugshan, which Stoessel vainly re-attacked for three days, losing three
times as many men as were lost in his defense of the position. On May 25th
Dalny was occupied, and became the base of the besieging army. Manchurian
merchants flocked here in great numbers and did a thriving business.
122. The Day's Rations in a Japanese Army
The Japanese soldier's daily ration consisted of one and a half pound
of rice, a little dried fish or meat and some relish. On this simple but
nourishing ration the little yellow soldier accomplished wonders in withstanding
the hardships of war. Furthermore, all this food could be easily packed,
shipped and transported more easily than any other food, and the final
preparation was also a matter of very little simple work, that anybody
could attend to. The picture represents an officer from the commissary
department distributing a day's rations. He dips the rice out of the box
with a measure holding exactly one pound and a half of rice, and can thus
quickly and honestly give each soldier his due. The scene is in the camp
street, lined on both sides with open shelter tents and laid out in the
most approved fashion by the Japanese Army engineers.
123. Japanese Wounded Bound for Home.
The hospitals at Dalny were so crowded with wounded that it was necessary
to send as many as possible over the sea back to Japan. Every transport
that returned to Japan after discharging its load of provisions, ammunition
and other army supplies at the wharf of Dalny, took back a full cargo of
wounded and sick soldiers. Our picture shows a number of such wounded soldiers
on their way to the wharf, while others were taken there on stretchers
and jinrickishaws. One of the officers who were thus returned to their
homes told Mr. Barry a touching story of how his life was saved. He had
had one of his legs shattered by a Russian shell during an unsuccessful
assault on a Russian fort, and in the following night Russian soldiers
walked about the battlefield killing every Japanese wounded in whom they
discovered a flickering spark of life. As one of them came near him, the
officer offered him a biscuit, and the Russian dropped his bayonet and
carried him on his shoulders to the trench, where his comrades received
124. Waiting for Room in the Hospital at
It was in August that the Japanese took the Eternal Dragon (Panlung),
advanced their outposts beyond its walls, threw up trenches, and settled
down a few yards nearer the coveted goal. In this fearful fight a certain
part of the contested field was taken and retaken seven times, and finally
a piece of ground, 300 yards across, over which these repeated charges
had occurred, lay partly within the Russian lines and partly within the
Japanese. On this field 110 living thing could exist, the hostile lines
being but 300 yards apart, a distance at which even a poor marksman could
hit a head or arm. The two opposing trenches were lined with sharpshooters
a rod apart and on the constant lookout. On this field lay hundreds of
dead and wounded, Russians jowl by cheek with Japanese, so thick that a
man might have walked from one trench to the other without touching the
earth. The Japanese tossed biscuits and aluminum tea flasks at random among
this mass, hoping that a wounded comrade might find one of them.
125. Chinese Coolies Taking It Easy.
These two Chinamen look comfortable enough, don't they? By looking
at them one would never guess that they are seated half-way between two
fighting armies. But even while this picture was taken, the Japanese shells
were flying over their heads into Port Arthur, screaming and whistling.
From their position the men saw before them the Japanese lines and the
smoke and flames spouted by the eleven-inch mortars. Behind them was a
slight ridge of rock, protecting them from any bullets or shot from the
Russian lines. It was only ten minutes' walk, as the crow flies, from Port
Arthur. These men were returning from Dalny and had ventured to make a
short cut between the hostile camps to reach their home on the other side
of Port Arthur the sooner. The baskets by their sides had contained eggs
which they sold at Dalny at a good price.
126. Jin Rickshaws for the Wounded in Dalny.
This picture was taken in Dalny on the day before the last terrible
assault on the Two Dragons (Ehrlungshan). The fourth grand attack on the
north battery of the East Cock's Comb (Keekwan) had succeeded, the hospitals
were full, but a new large crop of wounded was coming in on the next day,
and the Red Cross Corps got ready. When the Japanese reached the last moat
at the foot of the almost perpendicular wall of the fort, the Russians
had prepared a new trap for them. The moat was strewn with straw upon which
kerosene had been poured, and when the Japanese soldiers leaped into the
moat the kerosene was lighted. In an instant the whole mass was aflame,
and many Japanese perished miserably. Few survived, but these few accomplished
that for which hundreds died: they made possible the advance. Twenty out
of a thousand reached the top and with the aid of those who followed took
127. Wounded On Way to Home-Bound Transports.
This picture shows a troop of wounded who were sent to Dalny to go
aboard a transport that was to take them to Japan. Among them were a number
of seriously wounded men, so that a stop had to be made several times to
give them a chance to recover their strength. Several of the men were too
sick to go on board when they arrived in Dalny. One of these was a young
officer who in the third assault on October 29th. half-way up the Cock's
Comb (Keekwan), leading a squad of men, had come across a Russian mine.
One of his men stumbled over the contact and the entire lower shoulder
of the hill was blown into the air, taking with it some twenty-five Japanese.
The officer was wounded but kept on, and, rushing forward, half fell, half
jumped into the moat, where Russian sharpshooters, hidden in a small fort
the size of a bay window, shot him down. Hundreds of Japanese died in that
moat before their comrades could kill the Russians in the bay window forts.
128. Choice Rations for the General's Mess
This picture represents the barnyard of the Commissary Department of
the Japanese Army before Port Arthur. Here were kept the few ducks which
on special occasions furnished an extra dish for the highest officers,
who generally had the same fare as the officers and men. This place was
not far from the shore where the tiny stream emptied into the sea, thus
avoiding the soiling of the water by the ducks, where it was needed for
drinking and cooking purposes. The bare trees indicate that this picture
was taken in the fall. At the left in the background looms one of the hills
around Port Arthur, crowned with a Russian fort. The viaduct is part of
the railroad leading from Dalny to the junction with the main line, the
Manchurian Railroad, which connected Port Arthur with the Siberian Railroad.
The horseman seen at the right in this picture is a Japanese mounted courier.
129. A Peace Offering Bound for Port Arthur.
This picture was taken on October 29, 1904, during the height of one
of those terrific bombardments that preceded every assault. It shows three
Japanese soldiers conveying a 500-pound mortar shell to the eleven-inch
battery. The building shown in the distance is a destroyed station on the
Manchurian Railroad, the last station before reaching Port Arthur, distant
only two miles. Up to this station the enormous guns were brought by railroad,
and from there the little narrow-gauge track was laid to the place where
the batteries were erected. From there the guns were hauled by hand, for
horses or Manchuria oxen could not be used where silence and concerted
intelligence were essential. Eight hundred men were detailed to each gun,
which was mounted on skids such as lumbermen use in the woods. Four abreast,
with hemp thongs across their shoulders, and all attached to a cable as
thick as a man's leg, the men labored on through the mud after dusk, with
the Russian shells bursting over their heads and often, often killing and
wounding scores of them.
130. Getting Ready to Fire an "Osaka Baby."
The man standing at the breech of the gun is lieutenant in command
of the battery, and he is engaged in finding the range with a quadrant.
The chief gunner to the right of the lieutenant is elevating the parallel
of the great gun, and the soldier at the extreme left is the powder bearer
with his empty cannister, returning after delivering his charge of gunpowder
to the gun. The din of a bombardment of Port Arthur was something terrible.
The paper windows of the Manchurian houses two miles away were blown out
by the concussions; the mountains trembled. Whoever got within a hundred
yards of the guns had to wear cotton batting in his ears and walk on tiptoe
to save his ear-drums. These big coast defense mortars from Osaka, which
hurled shells the size of a large pig, and the naval six-inch guns roared
incessantly on the ten-mile front during four hours, until even the stoutest
nerves were on the point of collapse.
131. Japanese Soldiers Retiring from a
The group of Japanese soldiers in the center of the picture are returning
from a foraging expedition in the nearby Manchurian villages. Their trip
evidently has not been very successful, as the first man is carrying nothing
but an old biscuit can and some cooking pots. None but the poorest Manchurians
had remained on the narrow peninsula on which Dalny and Port Arthur are
situated, and what the Russians left, as they gradually fell back from
Nanshan Hill to Port Arthur, was hardly worth mentioning. The peninsula
furnished nothing, and, although the Japanese government had an excellent
system of providing supplies, it would have been impossible to sustain
the army here except for the utter want-lessness of the Japanese soldier,
who existed for months on rations on which an American would starve within
a week. The Japanese soldier on the right is a guard stationed at the little
well of water to prevent its contamination. Above a certain point it was
not allowed to use the water except for drinking and cooking purposes.
132. The City Hall in the City of Dalny.
Public buildings and improvements in Dalny, constructed by the Russians,
are much superior to those of other Russian cities in the far East. By
them may be measured the grand hopes for supremacy on the Western Pacific
which the Russians sought to realize when they spent hundreds of millions
in the construction of the Transsiberian and Manchurian railways, in the
fortification of Port Arthur, and in the foundation of Dalny, the port
destined in their estimation to rival Hongkong or San Francisco in importance.
By them also may be measured the depth of despair and disappointment into
which Russian ambition has been cast by the victories of the Japanese.
The whole superb dream of Russian supremacy in the far East has been shattered
because Russia would not share the empire of the East with the Japanese,
but sought to exclude them from the mainland. They might have had them
for their allies. By treating them with contempt they made them their enemies
and lost to them all the fruits of their vast labor.
133. Richard Barry and Frederick Villiers.
These are excellent portraits of two very noted war artists and correspondents,
Mr. Richard Barry, who was with the Third Corps of the Japanese Army in
front of Port Arthur from the very beginning of the siege, and Mr. Frederick
Villiers, the well-known artist of the London Illustrated News. Mr. Barry,
who stands at the left in the picture in a long overcoat, took all of the
photographs from which this set of pictures is reproduced. They are therefore
authentic and true to life. Mr. Barry's descriptions of the famous siege
were published in the Century Magazine, Colliers Weekly, Everybody's Magazine,
Saturday Evening Post and other high-class periodicals in America, England
and France, and the best of them are to be found in his book "Port Arthur,"
together with fresh material that nobody could write except one who was
in the thick of the fight and spent months in camps with the little yellow
men from the Island Empire.
134. Japanese Recruits Just Off the Transport.
General Nogi had 60,000 men before Port Arthur, and as Stoessel
was assumed to have 35,000 men when the Japanese land army first confronted
him at Nanshan, it was supposed that the Japanese outnumbered him enough
to offset his great advantage in fighting behind bastions and stone walls.
But the Russians were more stubborn fighters than their enemies had given
them credit for. From the 26th day of May, when General Oku took Nanshan
Hill, to the 12th of August, when the real siege of Port Arthur began,
fighting had gone on almost without interruption. Between Nanshan, where
the peninsula connects with the main land, and Port Arthur there were four
grand series of Russian defenses to be taken, each victory exacting a bloody
price, and the capture of Taikushan and Shokushan, the outposts of Port
Arthur, just in front of Keekwan Forts, had also cost many, many lives.
The futile assault on the fortress lasting from August 9th to August 26th
cost 25,000 men. The transports were kept busy bringing fresh troops to
135. Chinese Camp Peddlers.
Just when the photographer was ready to press the bulb, a Russian shell
burst fifty yards to the right of the group, and the two older boys turned
their heads to look and ducked their shoulders a little, while the man
and the youngest child took no notice whatever. It was not often that luck
favored the photographer to a similar extent. These four people peddled
fresh vegetables and eggs throughout the Japanese camps around Port Arthur.
They lived in the neighborhood villages. The three boys were orphans, their
parents having been killed in the terrible days in May, 1904, when the
Russians were driven along the peninsula into their stronghold, Port Arthur.
In the background is seen a viaduct forming part of the Manchurian Railroad,
of which Port Arthur was the southernmost terminal.
136. Rations for an "Osaka Baby."
In this picture we see a number of Japanese artillerymen placing one
of the 500-pound shells on a small track, by means of which it will be
drawn along the little narrow-gauge railroad to one of the immense siege
guns. These enormous shells, when directed at the forts, tore gaping holes
in the parapets, and, according to the testimony of General Stoessel, they
had a terrible effect both on the solid rock and masonry and on the morale
of the Russian soldiers, who saw the "impregnable" forts melt and crumble
away under this awful bombardment. The mortars from which these shells
were fired had a bore of eleven inches, or twenty-eight centimeters. The
shells were designed to burst on contact. They were loaded with a high
explosive, the invention of the Japanese, Dr. Shimose, and corresponding
in its terrific effect to the American maximite, the English lyddite and
the French melinite.
137. Unlocking Breech of an "Osaka Baby."
The enormous coast defense guns which the Japanese brought over from
Japan to use against Port Arthur were christened "Osaka Babies" by the
war correspondents. These guns were designed to defend the coast of Japan
against a naval attack, and were not expected ever to be moved from the
foundations on which they rested. But when it became evident that the Russians
had taken the heaviest naval guns from the useless warships in Port Arthur
and had mounted them on their posts, it became necessary to have weapons
of equal power to combat them. The "Osaka Babies" were dragged by hand
from the sea coast to the valleys, where they were placed on solid concrete
and masonry foundations, behind a ridge of hills that protected them from
the Russian fire. Immense and unwieldy as these monsters appeared, they
were handled by an ingenious machinery with the ease of a fowling-piece,
and the breech was as delicate as clock-work, dazzling like a piece of
jewelry. Port Arthur is located just beyond the hills in the background
of the picture, and the shells from these guns fell into Port Arthur like
thunderbolts out of the clouds.
138. The Russian Cathedral at Dalny.
When the Russians decided to build a city at Dalny, they made their
plans on a grand scale. Foremost among the buildings they erected was the
cathedral of the Greek Church, a handsome building situated on a slight
elevation and surrounded by a park, newly laid out, as is seen by the small
trees. As soon as the Japanese took possession of the city, they utilized
the church for a hospital for the wounded and sick officers, and the vast
area of the church was often hardly large enough to admit all those who
were brought here on stretchers and jinrikishas. After General Stoessel
had capitulated on January 2, 1905, Russian officers too were brought here
from Port Arthur, where the sanitary conditions had become frightful during
the long siege, and Japanese physicians and attendants nursed them back
139. A Battery of "Osaka Babies."
The Russian fleet in Port Arthur had been twice defeated by Togo, but
there was enough of it left to become dangerous, possibly at a critical
moment, and it was the duty of the besieging army to destroy this fleet.
The eighteen "Osaka Babies" brought from Japan accomplished this task,
besides smashing the Russian forts and thereby disheartening the obstinate
foe and raising the hope of the besiegers. From the top of 203 Meter Hill,
eight miles away, on the other side of Port Arthur, the effect of every
shell was observed and the range corrected, until the warships in the port,
might they dodge as they pleased, were hit with unerring precision. The
bomb-proof vaults of the forts too were smashed, and the smooth, unscalable
fronts of the forts were ripped open and pitted, so that the assaulting
infantry might find a foothold and a resting place on their bloody way
up the sheer precipices. The gun at the left is ready to fire. Observe
the high angle at which it is poised, minutely calculated so as to drop
the shell within a space not longer than twelve feet square.
140. A Chinese Pawn Shop In Dalny.
The Chinese characters on the walls of this building inform the passersby
that the owner carries on a general merchandise business and a pawnshop.
Keepers of pawnshops in general have the reputation that they are not very
scrupulous concerning the origin of the articles that are brought to them,
and the owner of the store shown in our picture was said to have secured
the largest part of his stock at the time when the Russians precipitately
evacuated Dalny and the Manchurian inhabitants of the town plundered all
the Russian houses and official buildings. As the Russians never returned
to Dalny, this merchant was not disturbed in the possession of his goods
and disposed of them at great profit to the Japanese officers, who soon
became good customers of his. The two men seen in the picture were just
about to enter his store to buy something for their superiors. The one
on horseback was a general's orderly.
141. The Endless Tread at a Manchurian
The native Manchurians grind their corn by means of primitive mills,
one of which is shown in the picture. This mill consists of a large flat
stone upon which a heavy cylindrical stone is revolved, crushing the corn
to a fine meal or coarse flour. The mill is operated by a donkey and a
woman, both of them harnessed to the two ends of the long pole. The donkey
is blindfolded, lest the sight of the corn might tempt him to nibble at
it or to refuse to work before he is fed. The woman, in this case a young
girl, stalks around the well-worn track in a curious manner, as her feet
are crippled after the Chinese fashion. Such a mill is a valuable possession.
The owner is considered a wealthy man, because all the farmers in the neighborhood
are obliged to pay him for grinding their corn. This picture was taken
about two miles from the fortifications of Port Arthur.
142. Sending a Message to the Czar.
This picture represents one of the "Osaka Babies" at the moment of
firing. The terrific concussion jarred the ground so that the camera vibrated,
blotting the picture. The guns were stationed in the rear of the Japanese
position, distant from the Russians, the nearest half a mile, the farthest
three miles. The firing was what the military man calls "high angle" or
"plunging;" that is, the shell traveled in the line of a parabola over
two mountain ranges which separated the batteries from the Russian ships.
The gunners never had a sight of what they were firing at. Only the lookout
on 203 Meter Hill knew where the shells struck, and he got his knowledge
through a hyposcope—that is, a telescope with a mirror arrangement—enabling
him to see without exposing himself to the bullets of the Russian sharpshooters
only 200 yards away. The hyposcope. the telephone and the quadrant, these
were the scientific means of wiping out the fleet at which Togo could not
143. Bringing Chickens to the Market at
This picture represents a street in Dalny. The man at the left is a
Manchurian merchant, for whom a coolie is carrying on a long bamboo pole
two immense wicker baskets containing chickens and ducks. The two men are
hurrying toward the market place, where they expect to sell the fowl to
the Japanese officers, who are glad of the chance to vary their bill of
fare, which ordinarily consists of rice, dried fish, bacon and tea, like
that of the common soldiers. These merchants scoured the country for hundreds
of miles around the peninsula of Liaotung for chickens, eggs and other
table delicacies, and always found a ready market for their wares at Dalny.
And the same was true of the other, larger army under Nodzy, Kuroki and
Oyama, who drove Kouropatkin and his 400,000 men northward toward the Siberian
144. Poor Chinese Boy Begging Rations.
Many of the Manchurian farmers on the peninsula on which Port Arthur
is located lost their lives during the fierce fighting at the end of May,
1904, by which the Japanese forced the Russians step by step to fall back
from Nanshan Hill, at the base of the peninsula, to Port Arthur. The country
is hilly, but has a fertile soil and was dotted with villages and farm
houses built of wood, which were demolished or went up in smoke during
the battles. Many a child became an orphan in these days, not only in Japan
or Russia, but also in Manchuria, since the farmers, stolid and fatalistic
as they were, never thought of fleeing from their homes, their only possessions.
The poor children were saved from starvation by the kind Japanese soldiers,
who fed them and allowed them to sleep with them, sheltered from the bitter
cold Manchurian winds. The children soon became inured to their surroundings
and played about, not even looking up when a Russian shell burst fifty
145. Soldiers' Barber Shop in Japanese
Among the great hardships they had to endure the Japanese boys counted
the Manchurian tiger mosquitoes and the vermin. Out of their tents the
mosquitoes devoured them and in the tents even the proverbial cleanliness
of the Japs did not suffice to keep them free from vermin. For this reason
alone the soldiers had to keep their hair clipped short and change their
linen frequently. In our picture we see a Japanese soldier cutting a comrade's
hair with the clippers. Behind them stand two others waiting their turn.
The tents are officers' tents. Just behind the barber's victim lies a heap
of barbed wire used by the Russians for entanglements and cut down by the
Japanese advance guards, telegraph wire and poles and other rubbish, once
erected by the Russians at great cost of time and labor. The poles were
chopped up and used for fuel, a welcome addition to the scant supply that
the Japanese were able to glean on the peninsula.
146. Japan's Famous Major, Yamaoka.
Major Yamaoka was the chief officer of General Nogi's personal staff.
He was remarkably different from the average Japanese, not only in manners
but in personal appearance. A square jaw, thick neck, broad shoulders,
massive hands and a long face marked him and distinguished him among his
comrades, and in his demeanor he was almost an American in vitality and
freshness. He dispensed with ceremony, spoke decisively, almost brusquely,
and looked one square in the eye with a twinkle that said he appreciated
all the social gayety and yet kept back his own thoughts. He was very neat
and walked like an athlete. He was one of General Nogi's most trusted men
and was an orator. Accompanied by two trumpeters, he carried to General
Stoessel the Emperor's offer of a safe convoy out of Port Arthur to non-combatants,
which General Stoessel refused to accept.
147. Plunder Captured from the Russians.
The Russian fort, the interior of which is shown in this picture, was
called East Tanlung (Eternal Dragon), which was taken after many weeks
of patient sapping and by a final onslaught in the face of a murderous
fire from rifles, shrapnel guns and machine guns. The picture shows Adjutant
Kiri, of the Ninth Division of the Japanese Army, and some of the Russian
ammunition left behind when they were driven out of the fort. The red packages
are star-bombs, used as fireworks to light up the region in front of the
fort to disclose any movement on the part of the Japanese and to enable
the gunners and sharp-shooters to take aim as in daylight. It was from
this fort that Captain Nashimoto with seventeen men, after hundreds had
been slain in a vain attempt to rush Wangtai, the Watch Tower, a quarter
of a mile beyond, reached the goal only to be slaughtered on the very brink
of the little fort. The bodies lay-three months where they had fallen.
148. Japanese Sentry, Ready for Night Duty.
Sentry duty before the enemy was almost certain death. The sentry must
see, must expose his eye, and if, as at Port Arthur, the besieged and the
besiegers were only 200 or 300 yards apart, the least carelessness in moving
the body might mean death. When the Japanese had taken Fort Panlung (Eternal
Dragon), they were under fire of the two adjoining forts, and as they sapped
their trenches forward it became impossible to protect them entirely. But
every few steps there was a sentry on duty, his eyes glued to a small round
hole in a little heap of clay large enough to hide his forehead. To make
it larger would have been making it a target for the Russian sharpshooters.
But even as it was, dozens of men were shot through the eye or the head
at these peepholes every day for months. Mr. Barry visited this trench
one day. In his presence one soldier was shot through the eye, and when
he asked the lieutenant how many had been killed at that hole on that day,
the answer was, "Twenty."
149. "Fall In." Japanese Reserves Ready
When the bombardment had lasted nearly four hours, then the infantry
knew that their hour was at hand. The parapets of the Russian forts were
alive with bursting shrapnels, a hundred guns were spouting tons of iron
and explosives against the massive walls, splintering them and killing
their defenders. The air was black and heavy with the noxious gases of
the shells, and the wind blew clouds of dust into the sea. As a rule the
Russians did not return the fire, saving their strength and their shrapnels
together with their bullets for what they knew was coming. In the Japanese
front parallels the infantry was on the move, invisible to the Russians,
but soon to leave the protecting trenches and to dash upward as far as
their breath would carry them. In the rear the second line and the reserves
stood ready to advance at the signal to fill the trenches from which their
comrades had just emerged to find victory or—death.
150. Street Scene in Dalny.
A Japanese policeman on his bicycle, traveling his beat, two Chinese
coolies carrying a wounded soldier to the hospital, Manchurian farmers
and tradesmen peaceably going about in the pursuit of their business—such
was the daily scene on the streets of Dalny during the siege of Port Arthur,
entirely given up to the exclusive use of the Japanese Army and its helpers.
Almost every house in Dalny was taken into the service of the Japanese,
either as quarters for the men of the commissary department, or as a hospital,
or as a sleeping place for the vast army of nurses, or for the officers
on General Nogi's general staff. The wide streets of the city, well laid
out and well kept, its splendid squares and long rows of wharves and warehouses
were of infinite advantage to the Japanese. Would the Russians have done
so much for Dalny if they could have looked into the future?