BILL AND SUE-ON HILLMAN: A 50-YEAR MUSICAL ODYSSEY
www.hillmanweb.com/book
Presents

Hillman Guitar No. 11
Hofner Fretless Beatle Bass
www.hillmanweb.com/guitars/g11.html

Hofner Beatle Bass decorates our Kensington Foyer  .

Hofner Memories

During my first stint in college in the early '60s, my all-consuming major subject - Music & Guitar 101 - wasn't taught in any of the lecture rooms.  True, I struggled through the History of Western Music, a Department of Music course taught by Lorne Watson. The main attraction here was the pass it provided to the great stereo listening rooms where we were to listen to famous operas and the great composers. Stereo records were a relatively new phenomenon then so night after night I would smuggle in all the stereo LPs I could afford to buy: Elvis, Frank Sinatra, Johnny Cash, Marty Robbins, Dave Brubeck, exotic percussion records, big bands, Nancy Wilson and other great girl jazz & blues singers, ... and anything that sounded good in stereo... even some of the required Classical records. Through the day much of my time would be spent in a room down the dorm hallway where one of my classmates, a HiFi Stereo buff, was eager to showcase his great sound system and his great reel-to-reel tape collection of the latest Broadway and Show tunes.

After our daily TV noon show and the occasional class, my visits downtown would take me to the Strand Theatre for a matinee and a browze through all the record, music, magazine book and second-hand stores, sometimes followed by a visit to a Chinese restaurant to satisfy a craving for my recently discovered food obsession.

A favourite music store was Johnson's Sound on Rosser Avenue. Albert Johnson was somewhat of a musical institution in the area. He had fronted a big band for many years, ran a dance hall - The Palladium - next to his shop, and had starred in one of the first live music shows on local television. In later years he designed and manufactured Johnson guitar amps and PA systems that he exported all over the world. I would often drop in and try out the guitars he had on display and he would often take time to share a few of the chords and riffs he knew on the instrument. The main line of guitars he sold were German imports: Hofners. One of the oddest of his stock of Hofner guitars was an electric bass, shaped like a violin. This bass wasn't a great seller... it hung there for years. Then, the Beatles hit  and suddenly it vanished from the display window. I wish I had bought it.

A fond memory I have of the Hofner "Beatle" bass involves Lenny Breau. I caught his act at the Establishment in Winnipeg one night. He played the Hofner all night - solo. Amazing sounds, innovation, technique and imagination!

Fifteen years later. Beatlemania had come and gone -- and the popularity of the Hofner Beatle Bass had seen a sudden rise and fall. Friend, drummer and bass player, Kerry Morris and I were doing a lot of experimenting with a recording studio in the basement of our Maple Grove home and we realized that the sound needed the punch from a good bass.

Sue-On and I had been Beatles fans from the start -- in fact, we had the thrill of playing in many of the North East England venues that the Silver Beetles had played in their early days -- and where many of the touring musicians we worked with still carried on the Hofner tradition. Fortunately, at about this time the monthly special from one of our music wholesale catalogues featured a Hofner fretless bass that the company had some trouble moving - catching dust in their warehouse -  until now. Within a week I was soon the proud owner of a Beatle Bass.

Sorry I didn't trust in your musical know how back then, Albert. You... and Paul McCartney . . . were ahead of your time.


REFERENCE INFO GLEANED FROM THE WEB
1966 Hofner Bass
HOFNER 500/1-I
BEATLE BASS

Hofner introduced their violin-shaped bass circa 1955 to limited success.  Between 1955 and 1964 fewer than  250 were built. This changed in  February 1964 with the appearance of  the Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show, with Paul McCartney using his second  lefty 500/1, which he acquired in 1963. This lefty 500/1, built in 1966, features the post-1964 'bar magnet' pickups, larger pickup mounting rings, and shorter tailpiece.

Specs: HOFNER 500/1-I - 1963

30" scale length 
sunburst finish
bound top & back, 
spruce top w/laminated flamed maple back & sides.
Pearliod pickguard, control plate, and heel cap. 
22 fret rosewood (unbound) fingerboard, 
vintage-style cream & gold knobs, 
"staple" pickups, 2 on a plate 
open geared (2 on a side) tuning machines.

Stuart Sutcliffe's Hofner President Bass Guitar

Serial Number: Not Available. Year of Manufacture: 1959-60.

Background: In January 1960, Stuart Sutcliffe exhibited a painting in "The
Moore's Exhibition" at Liverpool's Walker Art Gallery. The painting was 
bought by John Moore, the football pools millionaire for £ 65.

 John Lennon who was living with Stuart in a flat at Gambier Terrace, 
persuaded Stuart to use the money to buy a bass guitar from Frank Hessey's
Music Shop in Liverpool and join The Beatles as their bass player.

 This is that bass guitar.

Authentication: Signed statement by Astrid Kircherr and Klaus Voorman.

Sold: Sotheby's 28:08:86. 
Pre-sale Estimate: £ 10 - £ 15,000. Sale Price: £ 9,500.


Hofner Factory Tour

Adapted and condensed as a fan reference
from the main tour featured at:
The North Coast Music Site
American Home of the British Invasion
Hofner located at Hagenau near Nurnburg, GermanyEntrance to Hofner Plant.Many highly skilled Hofner luthiers and craftsmenMakers of classical guitars, violins, celli, bass violins, bows... and Beatle Basses
Instruments made from tight-grained, high quality, seasoned, flamed woodsHundreds of pallets of wood in the drying area - much of the seasoning takes 30 years.Beatle Bass tops-backs: computer machine carves out the bowl shapes
Sides of the Basses planed to exact thickness: then ready for necksBeatle Bass necks shaped by high precision master neck profile jigFinal inspections and shaping by hand - then precision fitting, binding and lacquer applied
Attaching chrome tailpiece to Vintage '63 Beatle BassBasses awaiting tuning, intonation, truss rod adjustmentsRe-introduced '60s Verythin Classic, semi-acoustic, 2 pickup, spruce carved topVice President jazz guitar - carved  solid spruce top/back - great flame on side
Vice President neck with large pearl inlays
62 Hofner Bass
62 Hofner Bass
62 Hofner Bass

62 Hofner Bass
Vintage 62 Hofner Bass &
H500/1 V63 Beatle Bass (Current Models)

In mid 1999, Paul McCartney sent his 1962 H500/1 bass back to the Hofner plant in Hagenau, Germany for some adjustments and repairs. This enabled the craftsmen at Hofner to have their hands on this truly magical and legendary instrument for several days. Many measurements were taken, which has allowed Hofner to issue the V62 Beatle Bass.

The top of the V62 Beatle Bass is carved German spruce, and the sides and back are made from highly flamed German maple. It is then finished in a deep sunburst topped with a highly lustrous clear lacquer. The picture showing the rear of the bass gives an excellent example of the flaminess of the wood used building these instruments.

A white perloid pickguard, control panel, and white body molding accent the sunburst finish.

 Two of the venerable "staple" pickups are standard. These are an exact replication of the pickups used on H500 basses in the early sixties, before the change to the less desirable bar style pickups of the later sixties and onward.

A two piece European maple neck is faithful to the original neck design from 1962. The neck is about 1/4" thicker from the top of the unbound rosewood fret board to the rear center of the back radius when compared to the thinner neck of a Hofner Vintage 63 Bass. This "deeper" neck is often preferred by players for its more substantial feel and stability.

The neck is based on a 30" (or 3/4) scale.
Just the like original 1962 H500 basses, strip tuners are standard.
Hofner Strap LogoRe-issue of the McCartney '60s Strap

H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass
H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass
H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass
H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass

H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass
 

5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass

The Hofner H5000 Deluxe Beatle Bass is truly a unique and beautiful instrument, the ultimate in style
and performance. Each is hand made by the master Germany.

The Deluxe Beatle Bass is based on the Vintage 63 Bass body and slender neck profile, but that is where the resemblance ends.

The top of the Deluxe Beatle Bass is carved German spruce, and the sides and back are made from highly flamed African maple. It is then finished with a highly lustrous clear lacquer. Check out the zebra quilt on the back of the example of a Deluxe Bass shown at left. This is typical of the appearance of all the Deluxe Basses.

The body moldings are made from a combination of perloid and an accenting dark wood grain. The
pickguard is a rich black color, with white accents, and the control panel has a dark wood grain
appearance.

The tailpiece, strap button, staple pickups, and tuner mechanisms are all plated in 24k gold.

The one piece neck is made of European maple, and features dual mother of pearl inlay fret markers on the bound ebony fret board. The head stock features diamond shaped mother of pearl inlays.

Genuine Hofner Vintage Style Beatle Bass CaseHofner Bass Flatwound Strings

Hofner


COLLECTING HOFNER GUITARS

By Stephen Candib,
moniker@ca.inter.net
Copyright 1995-1997, used by permission.
Adapted and reprinted from the Antique Vintage Guitars Information Site
Introduction.
Guitar collectors may be a motley crew, but most are interested in the same brands and the same gear - Fender, Gibson, Marshall, Martin, blah, blah. It's a combination of the "icons of pop culture" thing and the herd mentality. As a result, less mainstream brands have remained in the cool shadow of obscurity, pleasantly affordable and oh so mysterious.

That's ok, because it leaves plenty of room for the contrarians among us, who prefer shadow to sunlight, who gravitate to the vastly less expensive pursuit of stuff that doesn't say Fender or Gibson. It's not that we're cheap or never pursued careers in dentistry (all of which is, sadly, true). It's just that collecting cheap, goofy guitar stuff is still a heck of a lot of fun, compared to verifying the lineage of potentially re-topped 1959 Les Paul Standards at many thousands of dollars a crack. Besides, my assets are all tied up in Eurobonds and Brazilian time-shares.

My contrarian approach embraces Hofner archtop guitars. They're cool, they're cheap, and they're big fun. And we knowledge professionals know of the long-standing relationship between German and American guitarmaking: Martin, Rickenbacher, Gretsch, Rossmeisl, and Bill Lawrence are just some of the German  names in the American guitar pantheon (the guitardome).

Hofner is one of several European (mostly German) companies that built guitars in the post-war years. These included Framus, Hoyer, Hopf, Klira and a bunch of others, including some great custom builders. Many of these companies shared parts from the same suppliers. One sees the same tailpieces, bridges, tuners, inlay, and the like. By the late fifties most of these companies had broad product lines to rival Gibson.
 

      Hofner Model Identification.
           Hofner used a simple numbering system for model identification. In arch-top terms,
           these ranged from the lowly 449 up to the mother-of-pearl-encrusted 471. Even
           though they changed the system around a bit over the years, their model numbers still
           provide a great frame of reference. More on this another time. They used the same
           approach as many American makers: the more crap you can put onto the same basic
           guitar, the more money you can charge for it.

           Most of these guitars are pretty much the same size as a Gibson ES175s or L-4s,
           with varying depths (Hofner started doing thinlines, copying American styles, in the
           late 1950's). They vary in terms of details, but the basic guitars are the same. As the
           model numbers get higher, the laminated wood gets nicer and nicer, the amount of
           plastic and mother of luncheonette increases, and the hardware gets fancier. They
           also made a few bigger models in a size similar to Gibson ES350s or L-5s. And
           they made smaller archtops, like the "Club" guitars, which are sort of like ES140Ts
           or Guild Aristocrat M-75s.

      What about collecting Hofners?
           In North America, they are pleasantly rare, so the thrill of the hunt is part of the
           appeal. They never made a dent in the US, and by the time they got US distribution
           figured out, their prices were totally uncompetitive. In 1968, an electric 470 listed for
           US$695 through Sorkin.

           Old Hofners in the U.S. are often from England, where Selmer distributed the line.
           Hofner tweaked a few of its models a bit, put in the odd custom feature, so that the
           Brits got the Congress (sorta like the 449), the Senator (sorta like the 455), the
           President (sorta like the 457), the Committee (sorta like the 468), the Golden Hofner
           (sorta like the 470)... and so forth. They introduced the Ambassador later on, but the
           idea was wearing thin. Too bad they never got to the Whip or the First Lady.

           Canada is good Hofner-hunting ground, perhaps because the heavy tariffs on
           American guitars imported to Canada made Hofner more competitive by comparison.
           Dealers such as Wilfer in Montreal, and Remenyi and Heinl in Toronto, sold Hofners
           for years.

      But what do they sound like?
           The smaller bodied, L-4/ES175 sized archtops like the 456 or 457 make great
           electric guitars for the very reason they are not brilliant acoustic archtops: they have
           tons of top and middle, cut like hell, and have no bass (except what you dial in). The
           acoustic versions are also very loud. The bigger, L-5 sized archtops sound pretty
           good acoustically, as well as electrically, because the larger body size adds a fair bit
           of bass resonance. Their pick-ups and electronics were not great, but are easily to
           tweak or replace.

      How do they stack up?
           Given the juvenile bent of guitar dealers and writers to make comparisons between
           instruments ... let's do it! What can we really compare them to in American terms?
           The first thing to remember is that Hofner themselves confused the issue: their good
           acoustic archtops were supposed to have carved tops, with laminate tops on the
           same models as electric guitars. Typically, they screwed up: they often released
           high-end acoustic archtops with laminate tops, or made the carved-top ones into
           electrics. Oops!

           Most of their guitars were all-laminate construction, although specific higher-end
           models did come with carved spruce tops (bad translations call it "pine", or
           "bohemian pine", but that just doesn't wash among us information workers. As the
           Rice Krispies guy says - what the heck didja think it was made with?). Unlike
           Gibson, whose laminates are heavy and have grain with negligible aesthetic qualities,
           Hofner's laminates are very light-weight and usually use lovely flamed maple, even in
           the cheaper models. The lack of mass makes their guitars responsive and acoustically
           loud. Following the discontinuation of the Gibson Tal Farlow, it took years, until the
           introduction of the ES775 and ES165, for Gibson to use pretty plywood. Sure, the
           reissued ES350T (with full-scale neck) in the 70's was a step in the right direction,
           but no one even noticed it, coming as it did in the depths of Gibson's, ahem... "dark
           period".

           In one sense, the 468/Committee electrics may be compared to Gibson's
           ES5/Switchmaster/ES350/Tal Farlow model (all the same guitar): pretty wood, all
           laminate, 17.5" bottom bout, deep-dish big jazz boxers. The smaller guitars can pretty
           much be compared to Gibson's ES175 if they have laminate tops, and to the Gibson
           L-4 if they have carved tops.

           Hofner either had some very perverse notions related to build quality or liked to fool
           its customers, because the undersides of many of the tops also show spruce grain.
           Mere mortals might assume that such instruments have solid wood tops, but detailed
           goofoid spasticological investigation reveals that such tops are often laminates,
           cleverly disguised as solid tops. It's hard to tell the difference at first glance, but tone
           (or its absence) does not lie.

           Collecting Hofners is not a random choice. It's not as if I might just as easily focused
           on Hopf or Hoyer. Having seen and played many German guitars over the years, I
           think Hofner was the only large-scale German shop with a decent aesthetic
           vocabulary when it came to proportion and scale.

           In general, Hopf, Hoyer, Klira and Framus all settled in on a cartoon guitar gestalt.
           It's as if they were copying American guitars, but they were really drunk that day.
           Many of their designs are just plain ugly (even a guitar with a shape as cool as
           Framus' Strato-Melody series was built to suggest cheesiness). This is not to say that
           these other companies didnt make some great guitars. For example, unlike Hofner,
           Hoyer did build some fabulous all-solid wood arch-top guitars.

           Hofner guitars are in a different aesthetic league. Their proportions are quite elegant
           for their small and large-body archtops, both cutaway and non-cutaway. They draw
           on the best proportions of Gibson, Epiphone and Stromberg. This kind of aesthetic
           balance is not rare: many good guitars have it, and it is easier to notice those that have
           missed the boat than those that have nailed it. For instance, Fender and Gibson
           solidbodies usually have it; Guild solidbodies never had it. Paul Reed Smith has totally
           nailed it; Joe Lado just keeps swinging.

           The other thing is the necks: most of them are great big bats of wood, with a beautiful
           "c" profile: just the kind of thing to make Jeff Beck proud. And with a manly 25.5"
           scale length on almost all of these instruments, skinny shortscale wanker neck
           syndrome is avoided.

           Perhaps the best thing about Hofners is the way the necks are attached to the bodies.
           Until to late 60's, Hofner used a tapered mortice joint, with no dovetail. This kind of
           joint tends to creep with time, given string pull and exposure to humidity. Old Hofners
           almost always require neck resets, which are incredibly easy to do as a result of the
           simple joint. Hey, a neck reset every thirty years keeps the doctor away ... and keeps
           prices nice and low, where I like them.

      Alas, this too must pass...
           Now that the supply of vintage American instruments is being outstripped by demand,
           the deus ex machina is turning its attentions elsewhere: Guild is still waving its hand
           frantically, trying to get noticed, Davoli's are starting to cost money, and everything
           from Teisco to Weissenborn to Micro-Frets is being thrown into the maw, the ever
           widening gyre. Hofners are beginning to get noticed.

           There are three books out that deal substantially with Hofners: "Elektro-Gitarren
           Made In Germany", by Norbert Schnepel and Helmuth Lemme, "The Hofner Guitar -
           A History", by Gordon Giltrap and Neville Marten, and a wonderful new book,
           "Hofner Guitars Made in Germany", by Michael Naglav. There must be some serious
           European-based collectors out there, and these books are a great source, but there
           are still a lot of missing pieces to the puzzle. These books support the idea that no one
           knows too much about Hofner. Giltrap's book includes an interview with Christian
           Benker (who married into Hofner and worked there for many years) that is laughably
           vague. The real questions still aren't answered, like who designed these guitars, and
           how many of each model were built. Surely this information must exist, and now that
           Hofner has been sold to Boosey & Hawkes, who cares about old guitar statistics for
           models that no longer exist (ie. all of them)?

      Hofner Model Numbers.
           As previously mentioned, there were several Selmer model Hofners that were
           basically the same as German models. Listed are some notes on German models from
           the late fifties/early sixties, with an indication of the parallel Selmer models. Because
           the Germans used model numbers instead of names, and did not use serial numbers
           on non-export instruments, figuring out when changes were made to specific models,
           or when models were added or discontinued, is difficult without reference to old
           catalogues from specific years. Even then, Hofner took a page from Gibson and
           loaded its catalogues with a combination of puffery and vagueness which leads one to
           believe that their prime motive was to drive future guitar history buffs to distraction.

           Here is a listing of Hofner hollow-body archtop guitar models. This does not include
           "Club" or "Verithin" guitars, just straight-ahead jazz boxes.

                Model 449 - sorta like the Congress
                Model 450
                Model 455 - sorta like the Senator
                Model 456
                Model 457 - sorta like the President
                Model 458
                Model 459
                Model 460
                Model 461
                Model 462
                Model 463
                Model 464
                Model 465
                Model 468 - sorta like the Committee
                Model 470 - sorta like the Golden Hofner
                Model 471

           Hofner archtop guitars evolved from the mid 50's to the mid 60's, parroting trends in
           North America. Hardware such as tuners, pickups and wiring harnesses became
           better, but lost much of their charm in the process. As well, several things happened
           over time to make some model features overlap. Hofner replaced big mother of toilet
           seat block markers with dot markers on some guitars, changed some of its binding
           schemes, altered models slightly for export, and were generally up to no good when
           the foreman was not looking.

      Conclusion.
           Finally, I can only tip my hat in awe to any company confused enough to build its
           guitars with beautiful flamed maple laminates, attach its guitar pickguards with
           common finishing nails, and load its istruments with enough carefully inlaid mother of
           toilet-seat to furnish the lobby of a Miami Beach hotel.

 


PART 2  Part 2, General Model Info.
Introduction
           In the gripping first episode of the Höfner saga, we threatened to provide more
           detailed information on Hofner's model numbering system. In the absence of
           inducements to forget about the whole thing, we have prepared the following guide to
           Hofner models.

      General Model Information
           Selmer imported several Hofners into the U.K. that were very similar to German
           models. And Sorkin imported German model Hofners into the U.S. Listed in this
           article are decriptions of German models from the late 50s/early 60s, with an
           indication of the parallel Selmer models. Unlike guitars produced for European
           consumption, Selmer Hofners had labels, indicating model names and serial numbers.
           The Germans used model numbers instead of names and did not use serial numbers
           on non-export instruments until the 70s. They also replaced big mother of toilet seat
           block markers with dot markers on some guitars, changed headstocks and binding
           schemes, altered models for export, and smoked like fiends.

           So figuring out the fine details, like when changes were made to specific models, or
           when models were added or discontinued, is difficult without reference to old (and
           unreliable) catalogues from specific years. Hey, just call me a big picture kinda guy.

           The design and construction of Hofner archtop guitars evolved considerably from the
           early 50's to the late 60's, parroting trends in North America. Just like Gibson,
           Epiphone and Guild, Hofner designed its product offering around a few guitars that
           could be decorated and modified to support the perception of a broad product
           offering. In addition to different trim levels (each with its own model number), various
           Hofners archtop guitars were at different times offered with:
                full-body or cutaway styles
                blonde or brunet (sunburst) finishes
                deep body or thinline styles
                various pick-up configurations.
                optional Bigsby vibrato units and DeArmond pick-ups
                optional Bigsby-derived Hofner vibrato units
                tacky on-board active electronics on some models.

           Following is a review of the features of these guitars. The information comes from a
           variety of Hofner catalogues, The Hofner Guitar - A History (by Gordon Giltrap and
           Neville Marten) , Electro-Gitarren Made in Germany (by Norbert Schnepel and
           Helmut Lemme), Hofner Guitars Made in Germany (by Michael Naglav) and
           personal observation of hundreds of Hofner guitars.

           Hofner had been building guitars since 1925, and started to build guitars after WWII
           at the beginning of 1947. They moved to a new building in Bubenreuth in 1951. In the
           early 50s, there were several archtop guitar models:

              455, 456, 460, 462, 463, 464, 465, 468

           By the mid-50s, the model range had widened considerably, and from then to the
           mid-60s was Hofners heyday, during which period they offered a wide range of
           archtop guitars. Hofner also offered a variety of other guitars as well, including
           classical guitars, steel string flat-tops, lapsteels, solidbodies, short-scale bass guitars
           and compact archtops. The only non-archtop of any interest to me is the Model 499,
           which was like a Gibson J-185 decked out to resemble a Hofner Model 468
           archtop. This article reviews only the archtop and compact archtop guitars, including:

              125, 126, 127, 128,
              449, 450, 455, 456,
              457, 458, 459, 460,
              461, 462, 463, 464,
              465, 468, 470, 471

           During this period, hardware such as tuners, pick-ups and wiring harnesses changed
           and improved. However, the maze of slightly different-looking Hofners is actually
           quite simple to decode, even with partial information, based on consumption of
           several shots of Wilhelmina and an analysis of features related to:

           Guitar
                Body Dimensions - widths, depth, length
                Body Woods
                Neck Woods
                Fingerboard Styles / Woods / Inlays
                Peghead Shapes
                Peghead Overlay Styles
                Bindings and Purflings
                F-holes

           Hardware
                Tuning Machines
                Bridges
                Tail-pieces
                Pick-ups
                Pickguards
                Controls and Control Configurations

      Potentiometer Date Codes
           The potentiometers of electric Hofners can be used to date instruments from about
           1958 onwards. Prior to that time, Hofner used solid shaft pots with cylindrical metal
           bodies, the ends of which comprise composite material out of which lugs protrude.
           These have resistance values indicated typically at 250k, but no date codes.

           Hofner started using "Preh" branded pots with cast bodies in about 1958, capped
           with square composite ends out of which lugs protrude. The composite material is
           stamped with the pot value (typically 250k) and a date code. One great feature of
           these pots was the inclusion of eyes at each of the corners to allow for easy solder
           connections for grounding.

           The date code had either two or three numbers. The last digit refered to year, and the
           preceding digits refered to week. So 295 was the 29th week of 1965, 501 was the
           50th week of 1961, and 89 was the 8th week of 1959 ( or 1969, but other features
           make it obvious which decade applies).

      Truss Rods/Covers
           Hofner started using adjustable truss rods in 1960. Access was at the headstock,
           Gibson-style, using a hex nut adjustment. By the end of the 60s, the hex nut was
           replaced with an allan nut. Truss rod covers evolved as well, from a style with two
           smooth curves reaching a top point, done in 2-ply w/b plastic (with a thin black top
           layer) or white mother-of-toilet-seat (solid or over a white layer) to a pear-shaped
           style with a bulge on either side at the bottom (usually done in b/w/b plastic).

      Guitar Top Dates
           Hofner provided useful dating information: dates were often written on the undersides
           of the tops, and may be found using a dental mirror, some illumination and a lot of
           patience. I was quite delighted when I first stumbled upon such a handwritten date
           while visiting the interior of an old Hofner.

           This information is found between the treble strut and the treble f-hole, although it
           sometimes appears between the bass strut and the bass f-hole. I have observed dates
           hand-written in pencil, ink, as well as stamped in blue ink.

      Inventory Philosophy
           Hofner continued to use old hardware inventory after the introduction of new
           hardware features, so many examples exist that have combinations of old and new
           features. New pick-ups were introduced on top-of the line instruments and trickled
           down the models. As well, especially among the 450, 455, 456 and 457 (and
           perhaps because of their similarities), many hybrid guitars were built, such as a 456
           with a 457 neck, or vice-versa. This may have been due to experimentation, model
           changes, lack of correct inventory, backorders or plain carelessness.

      How old is that Hofner in the Window?
           This information, combined with a basic understanding of the different model features,
           makes it easy to identify old Hofners.

      Tuning Pegs
           Going through the models from simple to fancy, Hofner used a variety of tuners.
           Open-back strip tuners came on brass plates, with small white plastic buttons, usually
           squared off in appearance, and cheap pressed metal bushings. Nickel-plated plates
           also appeared. Buttons were made of white plastic or mother-of-toilet -seat.
           Individual open-back tuners on nickel-plated plates appeared on better models, with
           larger squared-off buttons and high-quality machined bushings. These plates had
           parallel sides with a floral profile at top and bottom. Fancier tuners used similar
           plates, but with more elaborate buttons, moulded with the same floral reference. Top
           of the line tuners were gold-plated, covered, and with elaborate chasing and the same
           elaborate mother-of- toilet-seat buttons. The fanciest tuners were manufactured by
           Kolb, and were also used on Hagstrom and Guild guitars.

           In the early 50s, even the fanciest guitars used strip tuners (often elaborately
           chased) that resemble classical guitar tuners. The shafts of these tuners were metal,
           wrapped with white plastic sleeves (of classical guitar dimension) with oversized brass
           bushings. These sleeves were soon eliminated and shaft diameters were reduced to
           conventional diameters by the mid-50s. In general, shaft diameters on the better
           tuners were 7mm, wider than the 1/4" shafts found on American tuners by Kluson,
           Grover or Waverly (except for Kluson Seal-Fasts or Grover Imperials, which hover
           around 5/16").

           In the mid-60's, Hofner introduced covered tuners, with plain rectangular metal,
           white or mother- of-toilet-seat rectangular buttons. These tuners were nickel-plated,
           or goldplated on the top models.

           In general, Hofner arched-top guitar headstocks were thicker than comparable
           American guitar headstocks, so the tuners had extra-long shafts. Other than original
           tuners, Schallers are the only currently available tuners with long enough shafts to
           routinely provide adequate clearance.

      Wiring Harnesses
           Pick-up controls were originally mounted on single-layer mother-of-tortoiseshell
           plates mounted on the bottom bout, on the treble side. On/off switches (black plastic
           switches, aluminium surrounds) for each pick-up were located below the mounting
           plate, right near the edge of the guitar. One pick-up guitars utilized a circular plate,
           typically with single volume and tone knobs. Two pick-up guitars used a larger, oval
           mounting plate, typically with two volume knobs and two tone knobs in a "cloverleaf"
           array. The plates were decalled in English with "Volume" and "Tone" in gold, and had
           bevelled edges finished in white paint. Knobs were of the "teacup" variety.

           In the late 50's, these plates were replaced by the classic "radio control" rectangular
           plates, with two volume knobs and three switches, so familiar to Beatle bass
           aficionados. The plates were single-layer mother-of-tortoiseshell, also edged with
           white paint, with white "teacup" knobs and white switches. Single pick-up control
           plates had only a single knob and three switches. White mother-of toilet-seat plates
           with black painted edges were also used and became the norm into the 60s.

           In the 60s, many of these control plates were replaced with pots mounted directly
           through the face of the guitar, usually in rows of three or in Gibson-style 2+2 format.
           Finally, pick-up switches appeared, usually in the upper bass bout. The switch had a
           flimsy black plastic tip in a rectangular black metal housing attached to the guitar top
           with two screws.

      Knobs
           Hofner teacup knobs were off-white, with concave gold caps pressed into the tops.
           There were two versions, one with a rounded top lip, one with a bevelled top lip.
           Very old teacup knobs also appear in tortoiseshell.

           Hofner skirted knobs, introduced in the 60s, had grooves in the skirt, concave
           nickel or gold tops pressed into place, and VOLUME or TONE deeply embossed
           on their surfaces. Skirted knobs also appeared in black occasionally. They looked
           somewhat like a combination of 60s Fender Stratocaster and Fender amp knobs.

           Original Hofner knobs were attached with slot head set screws, and were cast to fit
           Hofner solid shaft pots, which were 6mm in diameter. They do not fit on American
           1/4" solid shaft pots unless the knobs are drilled out.

      Screws
           In the 50s and 60s, Hofner used slot head screws. They often used round headed
           nails to secure tailpieces. Around 1964, they started to use black Phillips head screws
           to attach truss rod covers and to attach Gibson-style pick-up mounting frames to
           guitar faces.

      Pickguards
           Hofner developed a distinctive pickguard shape for its non-cutaway as well as its
           cutaway guitars, For the most part, pickguards were either thick one ply white
           mother-of-toilet-seat, or thick one- ply tortoiseshell, although other types occur, such
           as two-ply white mother-of-toilet-seat over white, or two-ply brown
           mother-of-toilet-seat over white. On the fanciest guitars, the pickguards were clear
           acrylic. The pickguards usually had chamfered edges.

           In the 60s, Hofner started using b/w/b/w/b pickguards with chamfered edges, again
           more closely resembling Gibson in choice of material. The clear pickguard featured
           on the top models was now routed for a wide pinstripe and a Hofner logo, filled with
           gold detailing.

           Hofner attached its pickguards at three points, so the plastic never came into contact
           with the guitar tops. Common finishing nails were used to attach pickguards at two of
           those points: a small hole was drilled at the side of the neck and another on the base
           of the bridge. The nail was sandwiched between the pickguard and a small piece of
           pickguard material glued underneath. This wonderfully shoddy approach is part of the
           charm of these guitars. On the top of the line guitars, the clear pickguard was
           attached to the neck and bridge with neat little pins drilled right into the side of the
           pickguard.

           A bent metal bracket was attached to the guitar side with a single screw running
           through a countersunk hole in the bracket. With most pickguards, the bracket was
           friction fit to the underside of the pickguard through a slot made of glued-up
           pickguard material. With clear pickguards found on the fanciest models, the bracket
           was attached to the pickguard with a single nut and countersunk bolt.

           In the late 60s, Hofner adopted a new "reverse" pickguard shape, following the
           contours of the guitar cutaway, the idea for which came from the "Beatle bass"
           pickguard. Originally mounted like the older pickguards, they were eventually
           mounted directly onto the guitar face with countersunk philips head screws, with small
           risers to raise the pickguard off of the face of the guitar.

      Plating
           Hofner generally used nickel-plated metal parts except for its top of the line guitars,
           which used gold-plated parts. Hofner started to use chrome-plated parts in the
           mid-60s, on its own vibrato tailpieces, metal bridges and "nova-sonic" humbucking
           pick-ups (usually refered to as "staple" pickups).

      Pick-ups
           Pick-ups went through several changes manufactured by Fuma in Berlin; single-coil,
           with six multi-slot screws on chrome-plated metal bodies riveted to matching
           non-adjustable chrome-plated bases

           Hofner single coil pick-ups with rosewood bodies and black plastic caps, mounted
           on matching rosewood bases with height-adjustable knurled aluminium rings on
           aluminium posts

           Hofner single coil pick-ups with all-plastic cases, usually black, sometimes white,
           mounted on matching bases with height-adjustable knurled aluminium rings on
           aluminium posts

           Hofner single coil pick-ups with slotted metal covers, nicknamed "toaster" pick-ups,
           mounted in thick black plastic rings. Height adjustment was through double set
           screws threaded directly through the bass and treble sides of the plastic ring, directly
           holding the pickup. The rings were attached to the guitar body with two countersunk
           screws through two tabs on the treble and bass sides of the rings, hidden from view
           by the pickups themselves. This meant that the rings had to be attached to the bodies
           first, then the pickups installed. No holes were cut into the guitar faces as a result, but
           for small holes drilled to allow pickup wires to pass through the guitar tops.

           Hofner single coil "super-response" pick-ups with six exposed slot-head screws and
           the Hofner logo in a rhombus stamped on the faces (the Hofner logo facing either
           toward or away from the screws depending on whether it was a neck or bridge
           pick-up). These were larger than the "toaster" pick-ups, and were mounted in
           thinner-walled black plastic rings. Height adjustment was again through double set
           screws threaded directly through the bass and treble sides of the plastic rings, directly
           holding the pickups.

           Different ring heights were used depending on pickup placement at the neck or
           bridge, and different pick-up heights were also used, particularly on the "Verithin"
           model guitar. The rings were attached to the guitar bodies with two countersunk
           screws through two tabs on the treble and bass sides of the rings, hidden from view
           by the pickups themselves. This meant that the rings had to be attached to the bodies
           first, then the pickups installed. No holes were cut into the guitar faces as a result, but
           for a small holes drilled to allow the pickup wires to pass through the guitar tops.

           Hofner "nova-sonic" humbuckers with chrome covers. These had the same six slot
           screws as the "super-response" units, but opposite each screw was an exposed
           rectangular "staple", hence the nickname "staple pick-ups". These pickups had the
           same dimensions as the "super-response" pickups, and were mounted the same way
           on early examples, but were introduced right around the time when Hofner changed
           its pick-up mounts.

           The new humbucking pickup-style system had the pickups suspended from
           Gibson-style black plastic rings by two spring-loaded, slot-head machine screws with
           squared-off tops. The rings were attached to the guitar bodies with four black
           countersunk Philips head screws at each corner of the rings. This meant that tops of
           the guitars had to be cut under the mounting rings to allow the pickups to hang
           properly.

           This affected the construction of Hofners in that the struts, which had previously been
           glued to the underside of the top in a v-shaped configuration, converging toward the
           neckblock, were eventually replaced with parallel struts, spaced widely enough apart
           to accommodate the holes in the top now required for proper pickup installation. But
           the change in strut placement took place well after the change in mounting ring styles,
           so one sees many guitars from the mid-60s with crudely cut holes that leave the
           struts exposed, or cut partially through them. The crudeness of these transitional
           installations speaks volumes about the state of Hofners archtop production in the
           mid-60s.

           Hofner bar pick-ups with a solid blade in a black plastic surround set into the
           chromed cover. The blade was notched below the B string and there were six
           adjusting screws set in the chrome cover near the pick-up edge. There were two
           versions of this bar pick-up, one of which fits into the existing Hofner pick-up
           mounting rings, the second of which was longer and narrower, and fit into very
           cheesy-looking oversized mounting rings.

           These were followed by humbuckers which increasingly came to resemble Gibson
           pick-ups.

           In addition to these pickups, Hofner also offered a variety of after-market pick-ups in
           the late 1950s to retrofit onto acoustic archtop guitars.

      Bridges
           Hofner used several bridge assemblies. They had wooden bases, with knurled
           aluminum wheels on aluminum posts, on which sat wooden bridges. By the late 50s,
           there were several different types of bridges for "cello-guitars":

                Ebonized (dyed maple), with fret (bone or white plastic insert) , height
                adjustable with 2 screws. This was the basic bridge. The "fret" or insert was
                set in diagonally across the top. I have also seen ebony and rosewood versions
                of this style.
                Ebony or rosewood, with moveable fretwire, height adjustable with 2 screws.
                This was the classic Hofner bridge, with four open slots, separated at the ends
                with white plastic, into which were friction-fit pieces of fret-wire that could be
                moved between slots to optimize intonation.
                Ebony, adjustable, with celluloid and mother-of-pearl inlay ( I have yet to see
                one).
                Standard rosewood or ebony two-piece bridge, similar to those found on
                Gibson or Guild archtops (Guild used a lot of German hardware - their
                wooden bridges were probably German as well)

           Several other good quality bridges were subsequently used as well. In the early 60s,
           Hofner introduced the "micro-matic" bridge, which was a version of Gibsons
           "tune-o-matic" bridge, and sat on a height-adjustable rosewood base.

           Hofner also introduced some really stupid bridges. One design used adjustable white
           plastic inserts which slid along channels in the top piece of the rosewood bridge. This
           bridge was not so bad, but the design was subsequently copied in black plastic, and
           appeared on many cheaper Hofner archtops. It stained the top black under its feet,
           and had extremely poor tone transmission qualities. Hofner also introduced a
           distinctive chromed or gold-plated metal bridge with adjustable clear plastic inserts
           that could be intonated by being slid along a metal channel, all on a solid black dyed
           maple base. Ugh!

      Necks
           Hofner used maple for its necks. Most Hofner necks had glued-on heel extensions,
           although one occasionally finds 50s necks profiled using single pieces of wood.
           Early necks had a shallow headstock pitch, which was changed in the mid-50s to
           more closely match the Gibson headstock pitch. Neck cross-sections were typically
           two piece, three piece with a center seam of beech, or five piece (not including any
           additional wood glued to either side of the headstock).

           The five piece neck style was a copy of the five piece Epiphone / Guild neck, with
           two thin strips of mahogany sandwiched between three pieces of maple. Throughout
           the 50s, the thickness of these mahogany strips varied slightly, as did the width of
           the centre piece of maple, but by the 60s it was standardized. There was also an
           eleven piece neck on the top of the line 470/S archtop, related to but surpassing the
           seven-piece neck style of the Epiphone Emperor. In the early 70s, this neck was
           simplified to become a seven-piece style, very similar to the by-then defunct
           Emperor.

           Hofner always used volutes on its instruments, which varied from hard, defined edges
           to soft edges. Necks were always attached to bodies at the 14th fret, using simple
           tapered mortise joints. The fingerboard tongues extended over the bodies in a
           violin-like manner, with clearance underneath the board. Early Hofners had this
           tongue supported by the maple of the neck, which continued underneath the board
           and tapered up to the end of the fingerboard. In the mid-50s, the company altered
           this design, replacing the wood under the fingerboard from the 14th fret forward with
           a piece of quartersawn spruce. This was because the tongue tended to warp upwards
           during the dry winter months, dangling as it did over the guitar top with nothing to
           keep it in place. The soft, high moisture content spruce was much more stable and
           less susceptible to seasonal humidity changes. The rationale behind this design was
           based on avoiding contact with the vibrating guitar top to optimize its acoustic
           properties. This rationale was directly contradicted by all of Hofners electric archtop
           guitars, with pickups and controls bolted onto or cut into the guitar tops. Oh, well.

           Hofner archtop guitars were built with 25.5" scale lengths, 22 frets, and zero frets.
           The "Club" guitars are an exception to this, with 24 3/8" scale lengths. Fingerboards
           were always rounded at the body end, except for the Club 60 models. Frets were of
           varying styles, with brass frets on the least expensive models, and a tendency to
           increase fret size as the models got fancier. With a few exceptions, the tendency was
           to bind the necks before fretting them, and to cut through the bindings to
           accommodate the frets. To American eyes, this makes the guitars look like they have
           been improperly refretted, but they were mostly built that way. However, specific
           models were fretted without cutting the binding.

           There was little standardization of neck shapes on pre-truss-rod Hofners. They
           ranged from boxy and narrow to clubby and narrow to clubby and wide (my
           favourite). Following the introduction of truss rods in 60, neck shapes became more
           standardized on a round "c" shape. These "c-shaped" necks tended to vary more in
           terms of mass than in shape. Measurements at the nut reveal a universe of neck
           widths.

           Heel shapes changed from the early 50s to the early 60s as well. Early heels
           tapered to a narrow and rounded end, with flat plastic end caps. Later heels did not
           taper as much but were also rounded, so the flat plastic caps were usually larger. In
           the late 60s, when Hofner completely changed its body styles, they went to flattened
           (as opposed to rounded) heels, like those on contemporary Heritage archtop guitars.

      Headstock shapes, coverings and Hofner logos
           Hofner used many different headstock shapes and headstock overlays between the
           early 50s and late 60s. It hurts the brain to go through them all. Maybe later.

      Bodies
           There were two basic Hofner bodies, most easily compared to Gibsons ES-175 /
           L4 size and its ES-350 / L5 body sizes. Hofner also introduced a larger size in 1960,
           although it is much less often seen. These three Hofner shapes have the following
           approximate dimensions:

              width across bottom bout   16"  17"  18"
              width across top bout      12"  12"  13"
              length of body             20"  20"  21"
              depth (fullbody)            3"   3"   3"

           Catalogue information is vague in this regard. Different models based on these bodies
           are described as, for instance:

              width across bottom bout  16.5"  17"    17.5"  or 18"
              length of body            20.5"  20.5"  21.25" or 20.5"
              depth (fullbody)           3.5"   3"     3.25"

           "Club" guitars had small bodies:

              width across bottom bout  13"
              width across top bout      9 1/2"
              length of body            17 1/8"
              depth                      2"

           Bodies were always built with laminated backs and sides. Tops were either solid
           spruce or laminated, depending on a variety of factors. These laminates were three
           ply (eventually Hofner used five-ply) and were lightly fabricated, resulting in
           lightweight and responsive guitars. Solid bent hardwood kerfing was used and
           neckblocks and endblocks were made of spruce. Necks were glued into endblocks
           using the above-mentioned tapered mortise joints and violin-style tongues. Two large
           bass bars or struts were fitted to the undersides of the tops in a non-parallel
           arrangement, converging toward the neckblock.

           Lower end models had laminate tops with a single or bookmatched outer face layer
           of maple. On these models, the inside face layer of laminate was usually mahogany,
           sometimes maple. Higher end models had either solid spruce tops or laminated tops
           with face layers of spruce.

           On cutaway instruments, all of which had venetian (round) cutaways, the lower
           numbered models had cutaway sides that were parallel to the rest of the sides. The
           irregular flat space between the top edge of the cut-away and the curvature of the
           neck joint on the treble side was filled with binding material. The joint following the
           curvature of the neck on the bass side was plain. As the trim level increased, as with
           the Model 457, Hofner added a layer of side binding following the curvature of the
           neck on the bass side.

           As the model number and trim level further increased, the side of the cutaway closest
           to the joint was no longer built parallel to the sides of the guitar but was built to match
           the tapered curvature of the neck joint itself, with a thin strip of side binding on either
           side of the neck joint as a result. This meant that the top of the guitar in the cutaway
           area where the neck met the body was wider than the bottom of the guitar where the
           heel met the body.

           The most complex and elegant construction method eliminated the thin strips of
           binding from either side of the neck joint and replaced it on the cutaway side with a
           radiused piece of solid maple between the neck joint and the matching tapered
           cutaway.

           In the late 60s, Hofner significantly changed the way it built archtop guitars. Large
           maple endblocks replaced small spruce endblocks, and the curvature of the laminated
           guitar tops and backs was flattened out in the neckblock area to simplify construction.
           The neck/body joints now looked like those of Gibson archtop cutaway guitars, and
           necks were glued into these neckblocks in the Gibson style.

           The arch of the top was altered to accommodate this change. The oldest style had
           pronounced arching, which continued symmetrically to the edges of the guitar, all
           around. There was a gradual move to less pronounced arching into the early 60s.
           The new style had an arch which flattened out completely in the area of the neck
           block, both on the top and back of the guitar, to allow for more positive contact with
           the neckblock at the top and back, as well as to make it easier to set the neck in at a
           given angle.

           The neck changed as well. It was shortened to have only 20 frets, which allowed the
           neck pickup to be mounted further away from the bridge.

           Hofner also developed an intriguingly crappy bolt-on neck joint, which made some of
           their archtops resemble Fenders LTD and Montego guitars in the neck/body joint,
           although the Hofner system used a single screw with a hook and eye arrangement.
           Hofner introduced florentine cutaways on a few models in 67, aping the florentine
           cutaways introduced in 61 by Gibson, like the Super 400 CES, L-5CES, Birdland,
           Switchmaster and ES-350T.

           At the same time, f-holes shapes were altered, as were headstock shapes and
           fingerboard inlays. While many of these Hofners were fine instruments, they lost the
           idiosyncratic charm of their predecessors as they were "improved". Into the 70s,
           they became little more than high quality Gibson copies.

      Model Numbers - Theory and practice during the 1950s:
           Hofners approach to model numbers was simple - the higher the number (between
           449 and 470) the fancier the guitar. So, theoretically, a 457 was fancier than a 455. If
           a guitar had a cut-away, the letter S was attached to the model name. So a cutaway
           455 was a 455/S. Some of the numbers were only used on instruments imported to
           the US, and the meanings of some of the other numbers changed over time.

           Most models had colours associated with them, usually sunburst variants, usually
           referred to as "brunet" - a reddish burst, a brownish burst, a honey burst and so
           forth. Some models were available in blonde as well. If an ordinarily sunburst 455
           appeared with a blonde finish, it was a 455/b. If it also had a cutaway it was a
           455/S/b. Specific models had special colours (like black or red) associated with them
           or were only available with cutaways (see below).

           Electric archtop guitars had one or two pick-ups. Some models were available with
           three pick- ups. Our beleaguered 455 could thus be a 455/E1 or a 455/E2. But there
           were other pick-up and tone systems available as well. So our 455 might be a
           455/T1 instead of a 455/E1, meaning that it had an additional tone circuit (and
           additional knob on the face of the guitar. Or it might be a 455/G, with an ultra-cool
           pickup mounted right into the end of the fingerboard (replacing the wood at the end
           of the fingerboard past the 22nd fret) but no knobs. With knobs, it would be a
           455/G1.

           If the guitar looked just like a 455 but was 17" across the bottom bout instead of 16",
           it was a 4550. In fact, the only large-body guitar catalogued this way was the 4550,
           although there are two other high-end models that only came in the 17" size. An
           interesting variation on the sunburst finish of some 4550s was a dark strip of finish
           running down the center of the tops, under the strings, creating a "skunk stripe" effect
           on the tops.

           Certain models had unique features:
                only the 455 was ever offered in catalogues with an extra-wide 17" body as
                the 4550
                only the 462 and 463 were ever offered in catalogues with three pick-ups e.g.
               463/S/E3.
                the 461/S, 462/S, 464/S and 470/S were only offered with cutaways. There
                are no catalogued non-cutaway versions
                the 468, 468/S and 470/S style guitars were only offered in the larger size (17"
                across the bottom bout). They were not logically catalogued in the same
                manner as the 4550, as 4680, 4680/S and 4700/S (although these numbers
                appear in a later model numbering scheme related to body depth).
                the 470/S was only available in blonde, but was not called a 470/S/b, In the
                late-60s, a sunburst version of the 470/S was offered only in the US
                catalogue as the 471/S. In Europe, the 471 was offered as a different guitar
                entirely, introduced in 69.
                some guitars were probably never offered in electric versions (like the 461 or
                464, each of which had a third soundhole below the end of the fingerboard)

           Model Numbers - Theory and practice during the 1960s:
                Things got simpler in the 60s. The model line was progressively simplified as
                the archtop guitar faded into obscurity. Hofner introduced a variety of new
                guitars, including new solid-bodies, thinlines and thinline double cutaway
                designs.

                As thinline guitars became popular in the late 50s and into the 60s, Hofner
                produced several thinline models based on existing full-body models. The
                addition of a fourth digit, a zero, came to mean thinline, as was the case with
                the 4500, 4560, 4680 and 4700 series of 2" deep electric guitars. As well, the
                fourth digit was used to communicate specific variations on thinline models,
                such as the 4572, 4574, 4575 and so forth.

                The big, deep-bodied 4550 was still offered, defying the numbering system,
                along with a cutaway version, the 4550/s. The 4550/s body was the same as
                the one used on the 500/5 "Stu Sutcliffe" bass, albeit deeper.

                Within the world of thinline guitars, Hofner offered different depths. This may
                have changed over time, just as it did with Gertsch guitars. In addition to a 3"
                and 3.5" depth for fullbodies, different thinline models were available in 2.25",
                2" and 1.5" depths.

                In the US, the designation for blonde finishes was move to a prefix: the blonde
                4578 was now a B4578 instead of a 4578/b.

                The introduction of vibrato tailpieces added the new suffix V. So a 4700/E2
                (thinline 470 with two pick-ups) was a 4700/V2 if it had a vibrato. Hofner also
                added circuitry such as treble boost and fuzz: a thinline (2"), double cutaway
                (florentine) 457 with vibrato as well as built in fuzz and boost was a
                4578/VTZ. Most of these variations bypassed the now withering full-bodied
                archtops, and apply to various thinlines.

           What else changed from the 50s to the 60s?
                Body woods
                The quality of the wood laminates changed. This is most obvious on Hofners
                two fanciest guitars, the 468 (Committee in the UK) and the 470 (Golden
                Hofner in the UK).

                The 468 had a laminated birds-eye maple back and sides, with a spruce top.
                The top was either laminated or carved, depending on lunar cycles, how much
                beer was consumed at lunch and other random factors. The amount of
                birdseye grain diminished over time, from roccoco excess in the mid-50s to
                modernist severity in the mid-60s. The 468 was also available with a flamed
                maple back.

                The 470 had a laminated flamed-maple back and sides, with a spruce top.
                Again, the top was either laminated or carved, depending on Brownian
                movement, the weak force and so forth. The complexity and intensity of the
                flame in the maple also diminished over time, from breathtakingly disturbed
                patterning in the mid-50s to precisely spaced tight ribbon flame in the
                mid-60s. Some people have suggested that the wood is not flamed maple but
                flamed sycamore, which is related to maple. Perhaps Gibson or Guild should
                try to find some of it, because it "sho' is purdy".

                The laminations changed as well. Originally, laminates were three ply or five
                ply, with laminate layers of varying thickness. In the 60s, there was a
                transition to slightly heavier five ply laminates that were of more even thickness.

Hofner Celebrates With 60th Anniversary 500/1 Violin Bass
www.notreble.com ~ March 13, 2016
An icon was born 60 years ago with the Hofner 500/1 Violin Bass, and now the company is celebrating with a special anniversary edition of the instrument. Limited to 60 instruments, the 60th Anniversary 500/1 Violin Bass stands out among its peers with original graphics by a bass legend. The artwork on the top of the bass was designed for Höfner by Klaus Voormann who is very closely associated with The Beatles and is the designer of the cover of the world famous Revolver album, a press release stated. This album celebrates its 50th anniversary since release and accordingly the artwork for the bass is in the same unique style. Each bass comes with a Certificate of Authenticity which has been personally signed by Klaus Voormann.

Hofner continues the basss black and white design with with black hardware, black tape-wound strings, and a black and white oval control panel. An interesting note is that the basss headstock has the original 1956 design, which has never been used on any other re-issue instruments. The bass comes with a ton of other special items only available with the bass: a Limited Edition art print of the Klaus Voormann design, prints of Klaus Voormann, a 60th Anniversary coffee cup, a 60th Anniversary pen and box, a White Höfner strap, a Höfner Limited Edition handmade bass fuzz FX pedal, a Höfner music CD, and a set of Teacup knobs. It ships in a H259B bullet case. Of the 60 instruments made worldwide, only six will be left-handed. No Ignition or Contemporary versions or copies will be made.

The Hofner 60th Anniversary 500/1 Violin Bass will be available soon through select dealers. USA pricing was not available at the time of posting, though the European RRP is set at €7,500.



Hofner 60th Anniversary 
500/1 Violin Bass Specs:

Body Shape: Violin Bass
Body Back and Sides: Flame Maple
Body Top: Spruce
Binding Top and Back: Black / White / Black
Binding Sides: Black
Centerblock: None
Neck: Three-piece Flame Maple / Beech /Flame Maple
Headstock Shape: Hofner 50s Violin Bass
Logo and Artwork: Original 50s Inlay
Neck Joint: Violin Bass Set Neck
Joint At: 16th Fret
Heel Cap: Black
Fingerboard Wood: Rosewood
Scale: 30"/76cm
Nut Width: 42mm
Width At 12th Fret: 48mm
Inlays: Pearl Dots
Neck Binding: None
Side Dots: None
Number Of Frets: 22
Bridge: Ebony Hofner Fretted
Finish: Black and White Klaus Voormann Design
Tuners: Single Black
Tuner Buttons: Plastic
Tailpiece: Hofner Trapeze Black
Nut Material: Plastic
Pickups: Hofner Black Staple
Potentiometer Knobs: Black. Gold top included.
Electrics: Hofner White Oval Panel
Strings: Hofner Black Nylon Tape Wound


WEB REFS

TRACKING THE BEATLES IN HAMBURG
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